Saturday, 25 January 2014

Great Yarmouth in 1851

Today we try to find out why Jerome was in The Dukes Head Inn on the day of the census.So we look in the history of Yarmouth in 1851.

THIRD SERIES, 1851–60.

“When found, make a note of”—
Capt. Cuttle.


Jan. 4th.—At the meeting of the Town Council, the Councillors for the St. George’s, Market and Gorleston Wards refused to appoint Ward Aldermen “as they had no confidence” in the Aldermen recently appointed by the casting vote of the Mayor.
The “Water question” was before the public, when, as to the Ormesby water with which it was proposed to supply the town, Mr. Cooper, an eminent analytical chemist, stated that such water “was turbid from the green and brown matter in it” and that “the large quantity (four grains) of vegetable organic matter that it contained rendered it wholly unfit for domestic purposes other than cleansing.”
Jan. 11th.—Chas. J. Palmer had presided at the Annual Public Library meeting, when it was stated that upwards of 5,000 books belonged to that institution.
J. Tolver, Esq. had sent in his resignation as Clerk to the Paving Commissioners.
Jan. 25th.—It was stated that a provisional order was about to be issued, applying the “Health of Town’s Act” to the Borough, thus threatening the Paving Commissioners with extinction.
There was great complaint against these Commissioners for not properly lighting the Denes.
Wm. Sumner, an ex-constable was bound over to keep the peace at the instance of Samuel Tolver, Esq.
Feb. 1st.—The following notice appears as to No. 4, South Quay:—
A tradition has long existed in connection with the Elizabethian House upon the Quay, formerly belonging to John Carter, the regicide, p. 150but now the residence of C. J. Palmer, Esq., F.S.A., (mentioned by Noble, vol. 2, p. 340), that of the “many secret consults” which the rebels held prior to the trial and execution of King Charles I. the fatal and final one took place in a chamber in the above mentioned house, in which Carter then lived.  A meeting of the chief Parliamentarian Generals was summoned, and the regicides, it is said, met early in the afternoon, and the conference, which was one of ‘great secrecy,’ did not terminate until near the hour of midnight, the dinner which had been ordered for four o’clock not being served until the meeting broke up.  This tradition, though generally credited, had hitherto received no confirmation to render it of historical value.  The important fact has, however, been placed almost beyond a doubt, as we can state on the authority of F. Worship, Esq., that in the course of the labours of the Committee recently appointed by the Town Council to inquire into the ancient records and muniments of the Borough, a record has been found of the visit of Oliver Cromwell to our town about the time alluded to, it having never yet been definitely ascertained that the Protector visited Yarmouth.  We hope this very interesting discovery will induce the Committee to prosecute their labours, and when the valuable town documents have been arranged and restored, the Council will see the propriety and necessity of providing some suitable depository for them.
Feb. 8th.—The New Mercantile Marine Act had excited much dissatisfaction, and several handbills had appeared urging the sailors to take action, and on Tuesday morning having “struck,” they mustered in groups on the Hall-quay.  Subsequently they formed in procession to the number of 1,000 and paraded the town for several hours; they had a band and flags with them, and a board on which was written “Do not sign the laws” and “Wages £2 15s.  Summer and Winter.”
A Seaman’s Union had been formed having 450 members, and Mr. J. Teasdel having given notice that he did not intend to reduce the wages paid to his men to 50s. a month, several hundred of the men on strike, went over the Bridge and manned the yards of a vessel belonging to that gentleman, for whom they gave some loud and hearty cheers.
The Magistrates refused to sign a 1s. 9d.  Poor rate, but such rate was subsequently signed by Mr. W. H. Palmer and Mr. J. Fenn and the rate for that amount made.
Feb. 15th.—A meeting of the shipowners had been held at the Town-hall to consider the seamen’s grievances, the Mayor in the chair, when upon the motion of Mr. George Danby-Palmer, a resolution was carried p. 151to obtain a repeal of the act of Parliament complained of, and a Committee formed consisting of six owners and six seamen with the Mayor as chairman to give effect to such resolution; the wages question was, however, not discussed.
Feb. 22nd.—A further meeting had been held “to take into consideration the present complaint of seamen respecting their wages, that the same may be equalized throughout the year whether by voyage or month.”
About 30 owners were present, and also the Sailors’ Committee; the Mayor was in the chair, and the sailors refused to be bound by their “old agreement;” the following account is given of their subsequent proceedings:—
Since the above meeting a letter has been sent to the Mayor, announcing that the sailors were determined not to abide for the future by the old agreement; and handbills were also publicly issued, announcing a “grand procession” of the seamen of the port for the following day.  Accordingly on Saturday the sailors assembled opposite to their rendezvous, at the Royal Exchange on the Quay, to the number of about 1,500, and flags, union jacks, &c., with a band of music having been procured, a procession was formed, which paraded the town for several hours.  The men were mostly respectably attired, and wore rosettes of various colours, from which were suspended the medals of the Shipwrecked Mariners’ Society.  Some of the men were dressed in various emblematical characters, such as Britannia, Neptune, Amphitrite, Triton, &c., and were borne upon the shoulders of the crowd in boats, dolphin cars, &c., which were decorated with evergreens, &c., in short the whole assemblage seemed more like a triumphal procession than that of a demonstration occasioned by one of those unfortunate breaches between employers and employed, termed a “strike.”  Throughout the crowd a number of placards were distributed, bearing the following inscription:—“We, the seamen of Yarmouth, hereby testify our gratitude to the inhabitants, for the handsome manner in which they have come forward to assist us in obtaining our just rights.”  Also a number of poles, terminating in tridents, fishes, &c., were borne aloft, together with a handsomely carved model ship, covered with the flags of all nations.
Mr. S. S. Barber had applied to the Bench for the assistance of the civil force to protect his seamen, who had just arrived by the “Maid of the Yare,” London Trader, and who had been persuaded to leave their vessel, and even threatened to be taken away by force if p. 152they did not leave.  The Superintendent and some of the police went down to the spot, but, as the men remained perfectly peaceable, their presence was not at all required.
The following members of the Council had addressed a letter to the Treasury protesting against a proposed loan for drainage purposes, which was said to have been carried by a majority of the Council at its last meeting:—Sir E. H. K. Lacon, R. Ferrier, E. H. L. Preston, F. Worship, William H. Palmer, R. Steward, R. D. Barber, E. R. Aldred, J. C. Smith, J. G. Plummer, J. Cherry, J. E. Barnby, C. C. Aldred, B. Jay, R. Ferrier, junr., S. Miller and William Worship, and thereupon at the Council meeting a very warm discussion ensued, during which Mr. C. C. Aldred was accused of having called Mr. George Danby-Palmer “a liar,” and Sir E. H. K. Lacon (by Mr. Henry Danby-Palmer) of having made a disturbance by “kicking against the panels.”
March 1st.—The following Councillors subsequently addressed a letter to the Treasury in respect of these proceedings:—D. A. Gourlay, H. Danby-Palmer, J. Bayly, R. Hammond, J. Lettis, junr., J. Fish, W. T. Clarke, J. Barker, P. Pullyn, J. Jackson, J. D. Chapman, R. Hammond, junr., G. Danby-Palmer, W. N. Burroughs, C. E. Bartram, M. Butcher, J. G. Cannell, H. Boulter, P. White, J. Fiddes and J. Pike.
This issue contains the following report of the Sailors’ Strike and Riot:—
We have this week to record a riot of a serious nature arising out of the unfortunate strike among the seamen who, until recently, had conducted themselves in a manner highly creditable to so large a body of men placed in such circumstances.  Since the ill-advised rejection, by the men, of the old agreement as to wages, there have been several mariners (as there always must be with an over-stocked labour market) quite ready and glad to sail at different rates to those proposed by those who struck; and forseeing that if such defections from their camp continued, their strike would be unavailing, the sailors have during the last week been in the habit of parading the Quay, in gangs, for the purpose of unlawfully preventing such as were willing to go to sea from joining their ships, and partly by force, and partly by threats, several men have been deterred from fulfilling their engagements.  Although these facts were known to the authorities, no steps were taken to put a stop to them, in the hope that the reasonable and peaceable portion p. 153of the sailors would see how unjustifiable was the course they were pursuing, and how really destructive it was to the interests both of the owners and men.  The same line of conduct was, however, continued.  The first case brought before the Bench was that of Samuel Graystone, the mate of the schooner “Ant,” belonging to Mr. S. S. Barber, who applied for the protection of the police, the men having been taken out of his vessel on Friday afternoon last.  On Saturday morning, Mr. Barber again appeared before the Mayor to complain that the master and crew of the “Maid of the Yare” had been interrupted, and made to go on shore.  The master having come up and corroborated this statement, the crew were sent for and asked if they were willing to go to sea, having signed articles.  The master and mate said they were, but the men declined, through fear of personal violence.  They were told that if they did not they must be sent to gaol, but if they were willing to go they should be protected.  They then agreed to go, and were sent down accordingly with a body of the police; the master and mate went on board, but the crew refused, and the police were therefore withdrawn, when some sailors went and ill-used the mate, throwing him over the bows of his ship on to the Quay Head.  The captain also was pushed on shore.  Subsequently the Bench were informed that the man Graystone had again been taken out of his vessel, which had gone to sea without him, and was then lying in Corton Roads.  Graystone was sent for, and said he was not willing to go; but on an information being taken against him for refusing, he said he would if he could be protected.  A steamtug was therefore ordered to convey him to his vessel, and on its arriving opposite the Town Hall at half-past two o’clock, the Magistrates agreed, before taking any other steps, to try whether the police were not sufficient to protect the men on board, notwithstanding the evident determination of a large body of sailors to prevent him.  The Superintendent of Police, therefore, arranged the whole force, and with Graystone in the centre, surrounded by the Mayor and Magistrates, the escort left the station-house, distant not more than one hundred yards from the steamtug.  When about half way down, the crowd, which then consisted of about 200 or 300 sailors, set up a tremendous yell and rushed upon the police, whose ranks were speedily broken, several of the police and Magistrates being struck.  They rallied, and with the assistance of the Magistrates, who were mainly instrumental in preventing Graystone from being rescued, they succeeded in placing him safely on board the tug.  The principal ringleaders were p. 154then picked out, and after some considerable struggling they were got into the station-house.  By this time the concourse of people had increased to upwards of a thousand.  Some of the men then obtained a spar or boom which was brought opposite the station-house door for the purpose of using it as a battering ram to release the six or seven prisoners within.  Several stones were thrown, and a few windows broken; upon which the Mayor immediately swore in as many persons as were willing to be special constables, and a sally was made upon the mob, and with considerable difficulty the spar was got away, and one or two of those who were using it were taken into custody, but being completely overpowered, the authorities were compelled to retreat with the force into the station-house.  Shortly after, Capt. Ellis, R.N., having arrived with a body of the coastguardsmen, armed with muskets, &c., together with some of the men from the revenue cutter, they took up a position in front of the Hall and Police-station.  The Mayor then read the Riot Act, the people not dispersing, but on the contrary rather increasing, as there must then have been several thousands.  Mr. G. D. Palmer addressed a few words to them from the Hall-door, imploring them to desist from the foolish course they had taken, and entreating them to disperse peaceably.  A stone was then hurled at the spot where the Magistrates were standing, but it fortunately did not take effect, and the man who threw it was instantly secured and brought into the station-house.  The following proclamation was issued by the Mayor:—
“Borough of Great Yarmouth, 22nd Feb., 1851.
Notice.—A riot having this day taken place in this Borough, and the Riot Act having been read, all peaceable and loyal inhabitants are desired to keep in their houses until order has been restored.  And notice is hereby further given, that no assemblage of persons will be allowed.
Charles Pearson, Mayor.”
After a consultation of the Magistrates, they unanimously determined to send to Norwich for a troop of the Military stationed there.  A telegraphic message was therefore despatched, which reached the Norwich Station about half-past four o’clock.  In the meantime nine of the East Norfolk Militia located here, under Captain Brown, arrived, and were speedily followed by detachments of the Coastguard from the stations at Caister, Winterton, Corton, &c., who were all sworn in as special constables.  The total available force for the protection of the town now amounted to 201, viz., 90 special constables, 81 officers and men of the revenue cutter and coastguard, 21 policemen, and 9 militia p. 155men; and it was determined to clear the space in front of the station-house, which, with much difficulty was accomplished, when the police succeeded in picking out and taking several of the ringleaders.
Some persons consider that the people might have been entirely dispersed without the aid of the military, but considering the overwhelming number of persons present, it could only have been accomplished by the armed force charging among the people, which might have involved much bloodshed, if not actual loss of life, and there can be no doubt that the authorities exercised a wise and prudent discretion in contenting themselves by keeping the crowd as it were at bay, until the arrival of the military, a troop of which, consisting of 35 of the 11th Hussars, under Captain Douglas, reached the Yarmouth station by special train at about a quarter to six in the evening.  A great mob of people had assembled at the terminus, and the officer in command refused to enter the town unless accompanied by a magistrate on horseback.  J. C. Smith, Esq., accordingly having gone down, the troop, a little before seven o’clock, entered the town and cantering their horses over the quay and pavements, the crowd which had remained in front of the Police-court fled in every direction, some of them in their anxiety to escape the too near approach of the soldiers’ swords, actually running over one another.  Several women were knocked down by the mob in their flight, but we believe no injuries, beyond a few broken heads and bruised limbs, were received by any one.  Great numbers of persons, however, secreted themselves by the river side, and in the ends of the numerous narrow rows in the town, under the impression that the military could not dislodge them.  The Mayor, however, having issued orders for the entire quay to be cleared, the police, aided by a strong body of special constables, were for some hours engaged in dispersing the knots of people who had collected in these localities; patrols of the military and the police were then placed at all the principal thoroughfares leading to the Town Hall, which had been the scene of the riot, for the purpose of stopping all persons from coming that way.  About eleven o’clock order having been, comparatively speaking, restored, the Magistrates consulted with the commanding-officer, and it was agreed that the military (which now numbered 75 in all, having been joined by another troop) should retire to their quarters, holding themselves in readiness to be called out at a minute’s warning.  The police were sent on their regular beats, but the cutter’s men and coastguardsmen remained at the Hall during the whole of the Saturday night, as did also the special p. 156constables, who were divided into three divisions, under regular captains, for the purpose of relieving each other every four hours.  At half-past nine on Sunday morning, the Mayor and Magistrates again assembled, but as everything had passed off quietly during the night, and as there did not seem any disposition on the part of the persons who were collected round the Hall (more by curiosity than otherwise) to commit any breach of the peace, the special constables, with most of the coastguardsmen were released from further duty until they should be again summoned, if required, by the alarm bell.  At the close of the morning’s service the Magistrates held a further consultation, when it was determined to draw up a report of the occurrences which had taken place, and to transmit the same to Sir G. Grey, the Secretary of the Home Department, to whom it was suggested that it would be advisable that a war steamer should be sent down to the port until order was entirely restored.
We cannot conclude our report without bearing our testimony to the great and extraordinary exertions to maintain peace and order made by our excellent Chief Magistrate, ably supported as he was by everyone of his brother Magistrates, and to the firmness and determination displayed by the Authorities may be mainly attributed to the preservation of the public peace, and the prompt and effectual suppression of the riotious spirit displayed by some thoughtless and illadvised men.  It could hardly have been supposed that any friends of order could have been found ready to cast any blame upon the Authorities for the wise precautions they took, but we regret to say that some persons who, instead of coming forward to assist in preserving the public peace, kept, to their shame, in their own houses, and who, entirely ignorant of the organisation which was on foot, presume to censure those whom they should have been the first to support.  Such parties are, however, we trust, but few, for we feel sure that the course pursued on the present occasion by the Authorities, will receive the unqualified approval and sanction of all the peaceably disposed and loyal inhabitants of the town.  The conduct of the Police force—as well as that of the special constables—was most meritorious and praiseworthy; some of the former especially distinguished themselves for their courageous conduct, but it would be invidious to make any distinction between them, as all the men in the force are equally deserving of praise.  They exercised the greatest forbearance, being most grossly insulted and ill-used, notwithstanding which they abstained from using their staves until the spirit of riot being openly manifested, they were directed to use them by their excellent superintendent, Capt. B. Love.  Police-constable p. 157Fuller has been very seriously injured, it being feared that some of his ribs are broken; another man who was engaged in the cowardly act of beating Police-constable Johnson while on the ground, in his turn received a blow from the truncheon of one of the special constables, which inflicted a very serious wound on his head.  Many other persons were hurt in the course of the riot, but not that we can learn to any serious extent.  It is said, however, that a man was severely wounded in the hand by the sword of one of the soldiers, he having seized the bridle and nearly thrown the latter.
On the succeeding Monday the several cases were dealt with arising out of these proceedings.
Mr. I. Preston appeared to prosecute, Mr. C. Cooper (instructed by Mr. F. S. Costerton) representing the prisoners.
Robert Watson (for obstructing Captain Love, Surperintendent of Police) fined 10s.
James King (for threatening E. H. L. Preston, Esq.,) fined 40s.
Samuel Bowles (like offence) fined £3.
John Crow (ditto) fined £1.
James Harvey, William Balls and William Stoddard (ditto) discharged with a caution.
Samuel Gowing (ditto) fined £1.
Henry Walpole (charged by William Danby-Palmer, Esq., with a like offence) fined £2.
James Vincent (for creating a disturbance) fined 10s.
George Walton (charged by Mr. S. S. Barber) for a “rescue,” fined £5.
Alfred Pye (for assaulting Police-constable Lattimore) fined £2.
William Bee, John Creak, Benjamin Mallett, Edward Brooks, and Robert Willgrass (charged with having taken part in the riot and disturbance) were committed for trial, but Bee, Mallett and Creak were admitted to bail in two sureties of £40 each and their own recognizances for £68 each.
H.M. ships “Black Eagle” and “Lightning” had entered the Harbour and laid on the west side of the river.
The Workhouse (which unfortunately contained a large number of idle and dissolute characters) had been the scene of frequent disturbances, and police had been lodged there on that account.  During the riot an outbreak, however, had taken place, and a ringleader named Charles Girdlestone taken into custody; he was sentenced to 42 days’ hard labour p. 158for this offence, and would be sent for trial for a ferocious attack on the police.  Three other paupers had been sent to the treadmill for 21 days each for refractory conduct.
March 8th.—At the Quarter Sessions, (held before N. Palmer, Esq.), the rioters, John Creak (24), Benjamin Mallett (34), John Brooks (19), William Bee (26), and Robert Willgrass (—), were put upon their trial.
Mr. Hotson (with whom was Mr. Mills and Mr. Bulwer) prosecuted, and Mr. Evans (with whom was Mr. C. Cooper) defended the prisoners, the Jury (having deliberated for 25 minutes) returned a verdict of Not Guilty, “which verdict was received with a loud burst of applause, which lasted two or three minutes.”
March 15th.—The strike had ended, most of the owners having consented to sign agreements for giving the men the wages they asked for, for a period of 12 months.
March 22nd.—The sailors had held a “Grand Procession with flags, banners, and triumphant cars.”  In the latter were several men attired as Neptune, Britannia, &c., in the evening they attended at the Vauxhall Gardens, where there was a grand display of fireworks.—During the strike 500 stones of flour, 600 lbs. of beef, and 500 cwt. of coals, had been distributed amongst the families of the men on strike from the contributions of the inhabitants.
The N.A.O.D. had met at the Trinity Arms to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the Trinity Lodge, No. 220.  Messrs. R. R. B. Norman, J. P. Hastings, P.A., and F. Palmer took part in the proceedings.—It was stated there were then three lodges of this order in the town.
April 5th.—Mr. Ferrier and Sir E. H. K. Lacon had appealed, without success, against the rating of certain property on the Denes, on the ground “that it was not within the town.”
April 12th.—Mr. S. Tolver had instructed Mr. Coppock, the parliamentary agent, to prepare the petition against the application of the Public Health Act to the town, and this document was being numerously signed.
It was proposed to form a “Pilot” Steam Tug Company (capital, £1,000 in £5 shares.)
George Danby-Palmer and J. Barker, Esqs., had been elected Haven Commissioners, and D. A. Gourlay and R. Hammond, Esqs., Supernumerary Haven Commissioners.
April 19th.—Mr. T. Brightwen was urging the appointment of a Chaplain at the Workhouse.
p. 159The Conservatives had secured, for the first time, several scats at the Board of Guardians, the following forming the new Board:—
Nominated by both parties—Messrs. B. Fenn, S. C. Marsh, and S. V. Moore.
Liberals—Messrs. G. Danby-Palmer, D. A Gourlay, and T. Brightwen.
Conservatives—Messrs. R. Ferrier, E. R. Aldred, C. Woolverton, W. Worship, J. G. Plummer, W. Laws, E. H. L. Preston, S. Nightingale, J. Cherry, and T. Paul.
Captain Ellis, R.N., had exhibited the model of a fast sailing yacht.
Captain James Day had been fined £5 for assaulting Mr. Nolloth, tailor.
The “Public Heath Act” was again being discussed by the Town Council, where Mr. Burroughs moved, and Mr. Barker seconded, a petition against the application of the Act to the Borough, and Mr. F. Worship moved, and Mr. R. Ferrier, jun., seconded as an amendment that the Council pass to the next business on the agenda paper.
Upon a division the amendment was lost by 15 to 23, and the original motion declared to be carried by 23 to 17 votes.
April 26th.—At a meeting held at the Angel-inn (C. J. Palmer, Esq., in the chair) it was thought desirable “to advertise the town, and that a saxhorn band should play daily on the principal promenades.”
May 10th.—The pilots of Gorleston had succeeded in establishing a Tug Company, and had purchased a boat of 45 horsepower, called “The Royal Albert.”
J. Hume, Esq., M.P., had introduced a deputation of Ratepayers opposed to the “Public Health Act” to Lord Seymour (at the Woods and Forests Office); it consisted of Charles Pearson, Esq., (Mayor); D. A. Gourlay, Esq., (Deputy-Mayor); George Danby-Palmer, Esq., and William N. Burroughs, Esq., with Mr. J. H. Harrison (Secretary), while 18 members of the Council at the same time petitioned Parliament in favour of the measure.
The sailors had held a meeting to consider the “Ticket” system and the “Muster Roll” fund.
May 17th.—In consequence of the removal of the window tax, bricklayers were busy throughout the town opening out windows formerly blocked up.
Mr. Cosgrove’s saxhorn band was to perform on the North and South Terraces during the season.
p. 160The census head been taken with the following result:—
Houses inhabited.
Increase of population per cent., 10.3.  This included 347 inmates of the Workhouse.
It was noted that in 1619 Manship estimated the then population of the town at 1,200 households, which would give a population of some 7,000.
In 1724 a writer named Andrews stated the population at 13,000 or 14,000; and in 1784 when it was first accurately taken, it was found to be 12,608.
The then returns were considered disappointing, as it was expected that the town contained 30,000 persons, but it was noted that 2,500 sailors belonged to the port, half of whom were probably not at home when the return was made.
At this time Gorleston had a population of 2,586, and Southtown of 1,412 persons.
John Annison, the driver of the Sutton coach, had been convicted for the fourth time of conveying passengers to Yarmouth at a greater speed than four miles an hour without having a number plate on his vehicle, and fined £10 with £3 3s. costs.
May 31st.—Visitors were beginning to arrive.
June 7th.—A project was on foot for laying out the Chapel Denes as an ornamental walk for the public.
June 28th.—A mushroom measuring 29 inches in circumference, with a stalk about the thickness of a man’s wrist and weighing 2½lbs., had been grown at Bradwell.
James Gedge, a pauper lunatic, had escaped from the Workhouse, having only a shirt on.
July 5th.—A Bill had been brought in by Lord Seymour and Mr. Cornewall Lewis confirming the provisional order to applying the provisions of the Board of Health Act to the town.
July 19th.—A petition, signed by 1,550 persons, had been presented to the House, and a deputation had waited on Lord John Russell with regard to this action of the Government.
The M.P’s. for the town being in favour of the measure, “had been requested to resign the trust they had abused.”  This action emanated p. 161from a public meeting of ratepayers, over which.  George Danby-Palmer, Esq., presided, and at which Mr. S. W. Bly, Mr. A. Ames, Mr. W. N. Burroughs, Mr. S. V. Moore, Mr. R. Hammond, and Mr. T. Parker took part.
July 26th.—The Bill nevertheless passed through Committee by a majority of 92 against 12.
Sir J. Walmsley had opposed and Lord Seymour supported the measure, but eventually it passed the House of Commons without a division.
The paupers were much dissatisfied at not being allowed, as formerly, to attend places of Worship in the town on Sundays.
Mr. C. Houchen had delivered an address on this subject, and denounced the action of the Guardians.
Aug. 9th.—It was computed that many hundreds of children in the North District were entirely without the opportunity for instruction, and it was proposed to fit up the Priory as a National School to meet this want.
Evidence had been taken by the Committee of the House of Lords upon the Public Health Bill being applied to the town, and they reported the Bill to the House without amendment; thus there was a “speedy prospect of the town being well drained and made clean and healthy in spite of its one-idead rulers.”
Captain Smyth, R.N., had been raised to the rank of Post-Captain.
Six hundred and thirty electors had signed a requisition calling on Messrs. Rumbold and Saunders to resign their seats as M.P’s. for the Borough.  This would form a majority of the voters.
The East Norfolk and Suffolk Horticultural Show had been held under the patronage of the Mayoress, Lady Lacon, and Mr. S. C. J. Palmer.
Aug. 16th.—The 279th, and last, meeting of the Paving Commissioners had been held, when there were present—Messrs. George Danby-Palmer (in the chair), B. Dowson, W. N. Burroughs, J. Fish, C. E. Bartram, F. Palmer, J. H. Harrison, S. V. Moore, P. White, J. Cobb, W. Crow, I. Lettis, jun., and W. H. Bessey.
Mr. Beeching’s newly-built lifeboat had been submitted to several tests opposite the Crane.
Aug. 23rd.—Mr. Beeching’s model had obtained the prize in the Lifeboat Competition at Somerset House.  There were 280 models and plans sent in, the first six boats being—James Beeching, Great Yarmouth; Henry Hinks, Appledore; J. and E. Pellew, Newbury; William p. 162Teasdel, Great Yarmouth; Harvey and Son, Ipswich, and George Farrow, South Shields.
Aug. 30th.—The Licensed Victuallers had held a large and important meeting for the purpose of protecting their interests, S. C. Marsh, Esq., in the chair.
Mr. G. Blyth (Reporter to the Norfolk News) had been induced to visit at night a tower in the South-End of the town, belonging to George Danby-Palmer, Esq., when he had been assaulted by some person there, and of this he had complained to the Bench.
Sept. 13th.—The Justices had refused to grant any fresh licenses at the Brewster Sessions.
The “Reindeer” yawl (manned by Beachmen) had challenged the “America” yacht to sail for £105.
Sept. 20th.—The Council meeting had been broken up, leaving 20 subjects undisposed of, owing to all the Conservatives and two or three of the Liberal members leaving the meeting, which was thus reduced below the required number to form a “quorum.”
Sept. 27th.—Mr. Hilling had been appointed Town Surveyor at a salary of £30 per annum, and £250 had been proposed as the salary of the Town-Clerk, he also acting as Clerk to the newly-formed Local Board of Health.  Mr. Clowes, however, declined to give his assent to serve on these terms without further consideration.
Oct. 4th.—There had been heavy gales and the Roadstead presented “a most lamentable scene, crowded with shipping, which had put in for refuge to the number of some hundreds.”
Two of the vessels belonging to the Franklin Exploration Expedition were in the Roads.
Oct. 11th.—Harris Wilshak had been charged with being concerned in smuggling 14lbs. of tobacco.
At the Revision Court Mr. F. S. Costerton appeared for the Liberals, and Mr. C. Preston for the Tories.  Neither party claimed any gain from the proceedings on the Parliamentary Lists, but on the Burgess Roll the Liberals claimed a gain of 19, of which 15 were in the Regent-ward, where a very warm contest was expected in November.
Oct. 18th.—Mr. J. W. Crowe had been elected Surgeon to the Hospital School.
The new Valuation Lists had increased the assessment of the parish by £47,000.
Active preparations were being made for the Municipal contests.
p. 163Mr. Wilshak had been acquitted on the charge of smuggling.
George Deacon, known as “The Prophet,” had thrown himself into the river, as he stated that it was impossible that he should sink; he would have been drowned but for the help of the bystanders.  When taken to the Station House he was found to have £18, 2 old gold coins, and 21s. 6d. upon him.
Oct. 25th.—The Priory was being fitted for National Schools.
Houchen, who had been preaching against “the powers that be,” had been bound over to keep the peace in two sureties of £25 and himself in £50.
Nov. 8th.—The Municipal Election had been hotly contested and the partizans of the winning party (the Tories) made it “a boast of having expended in the five wards a sum of money variously stated from £800 to £1,200.”  The following was the return given with the poll of 1850 appended to it:—
North Ward.
1851—219 Voters.
Mr. S. Nightingale, C.
Mr. W. H. Bessey, C.
Mr. J. Mainprice, L.
Mr. H. D. Palmer, L.
1850—208 Voters.
Mr. J. Jackson, L.
Mr. Burroughs, L.
Mr. Nightingale, C.
Mr. Cory, C.
In this Ward the Liberals headed the poll until nearly one o’clock, when a detachment of Conservative “runners” with some “dust” turned the election.  The price of votes was high, and ranged from £8 to £12; and it is said that two polled for the winning party cost £20!
Market Ward.
1851—270 Voters.
Mr. J. E. Barnby, C.
Mr. J. Fenn, C.
Mr. John Cobb, L.
1850—261 Voters.
Mr. C. Aldred, C.
Mr. F. Worship, C.
Mr. Owles, L.
Mr. J. S. Cobb, L.
p. 164In this Ward the Liberals did not bring forward two candidates, being anxious to mark their approbation of Mr. Barnby’s consistent opposition to the Public Health Act; and here, as in the North Ward, their candidate headed the poll until the arrival of the other portion of Conservative workers from the Regent Ward, when a sufficient number of loose fish were immediately polled to swamp the majority, at that time about twenty.  The prices of votes ranged from five pounds to ten guineas at a late hour of the day.
Regent Ward.
1851—244 Voters.
Sir E. H. K. Lacon, C.
Mr. J. Cherry, C.
Mr. F. Palmer, L.
Mr. J. Clowes, L.
1850—234 Voters.
Mr. Chapman, L.
Mr. Marsh, C.
Mr. Harmer, C.
Mr. F. Palmer, L.
Great exertions were used to secure the return of the out-going Councillors, and it having been almost publicly stated that the Conservatives were determined to win “at any cost,” votes, in consequence, got up the night before the election to a very high premium—from £5 to £15; and “split” votes even were in very great demand at £8 and £10.  One case is mentioned of a voter, in another Ward, who, forseeing the value which votes would attain, speculated in the purchase of one in this a month before the election, at the trifling sum of £3, and so profitable was the investment that on the election morning he sold it for £10.  The money spent in this Ward was stated at £350.
St. George’s Ward.
1851—256 Voters.
Mr. R. Ferrier, jun., C.
Mr. H. Jay, C.
Mr. P. Pullyn, L.
Mr. J. W. Shelly, L.
1850—250 Voters.
Mr. J. Plummer, C.
Mr. J. C. Smith, C.
Mr. J. Barker, L.
p. 165Mr. Pullyn and Mr. R. Ferrier, jun., were the outgoing Councillors, and the former was brought forward again by the Liberals, in conjunction with Mr. Shelly, the Conservatives selecting Mr. H. Jay (who had formerly contested the Nelson Ward unsuccessfully) as a colleague for Mr. Ferrier.  Messrs. Pullyn and Shelly refused even to canvass the electors, and although some of their friends solicited the suffrages of the Ward for them, there can be no doubt, however right in principle the non-canvassing may be, it operated against them, and this, combined with the constitutional principles upon which their election was conducted, contributed to their defeat, money being freely spent on the other side.  Much regret is felt at this result, and especially at the loss of the public services of Mr. Pullyn, after his having so long served the Ward, and after his twice filling the office of Chief Magistrate in a manner that won for him the praise even of his political opponents.
Nelson Ward.
1851—341 Voters.
Dr. Impey, L.
Mr. S. V. Moore, L.
1850—317 Voters.
Mr. G. D. Palmer, L.
Mr. T. Lettis, L.
The Conservatives did not contest this Ward, and Dr. Impey was re-elected, in conjunction with Mr. Moore in the room of Mr. J. Symonds, now non-resident.
Gorleston Ward.
1851—344 Voters.
Mr. S. Miller, C
Mr. W. H. Palmer, C
Mr. J. H. Harrison, L
Mr. N. Sterry, L.
1850—337 Voters.
Mr. E. H. L. Preston, C
Mr. W. Hammond, C
Mr. S. Crow, L
Mr. Costerton, L
This Ward was contested, but in rather a peculiar way, for although it was supposed that some opposition to the outgoing Councillors would be made, it was treated by the Conservatives as a “sham” one, and such it really seemed up to 12 o’clock, when the state of the poll came out with p. 166upwards of 100 for Messrs. Miller and Palmer, and only about two votes for each of their opponents!  This, however, was only a ruse de guerre, and in a short time the voters came up almost in a body for Messrs. Harrison and Sterry, who stated in their address that in “the short space of four hours they obtained 97 promises,” and had they been sooner in the field it is thought they would have met with better success.
The result of the Elections has been a gain to the Conservative party of two seats, and this reduces the two parties to a level in the Council; the Liberals have still, however, a bare majority, and it is doubted whether they will not be able to carry the Mayoralty for another year.  The Conservatives, it is said, intend nominating either Sir E. H. K. Lacon, or (which is more likely) Mr. S. C. Marsh for that office, whilst the names of Alderman E. R. Palmer and Alderman Bartram are spoken of by the Liberals.
The Bishop of Norwich, attended by the Rev. S. Hills and his chaplain, had inspected the Priory buildings, when they were received by J. H. Hakewell, Esq., (the architect) and C. J. Palmer, Esq., (the hon. secretary to the Committee).
Mr. Worlledge had moved the Court of Queen’s Bench for a “quo warranto” to try the legality of Mr. Hammond’s election as a Councillor for the St. Andrew’s Ward, and the rule had been granted.
Nov. 15th.—The Hospital was badly supported, and it was stated that unless £150 a year in additional subscriptions could be obtained, the assistance afforded to sufferers must be abridged.
A lecture on “Bloomerism” had been delivered by Mrs. Knights at the Corn Hall in full “Bloomer” costume, but she did not appear to have achieved a marked success.
Dr. Wolff (the traveller) had offered to give some lectures in the town in aid of the National Priory Schools.
At the Town Council for the Election of Mayor, a great crowd assembled prior to the meeting, when Sir E. K. Lacon proposed, and Mr. Fenn seconded, S. C. Marsh, Esq., to fill that office, and Mr. George Danby-Palmer moved, and Mr. R. Hammond seconded, the re-election of Captain Charles Pearson, R.N.  Upon the votes being taken, there appeared for Captain Pearson—Aldermen Pearson, Boulter, Bartram, Bayly, Fiddes, Hammond, Pike, R. Hammond, jun., E. R. Palmer, and Barker; Councillors Burroughs, Butcher, Cannell, Clarke, Chapman, Fish, Gourlay, Impey, Jackson, Lettis, Moore, G. D. Palmer, and P. White; total, 23.  For Mr. Marsh—Alderman B. Fenn; Councillors p. 167C. Aldred, E. Aldred, Barber, Bessey, Cherry, Ferrier, Ferrier, jun., J. Fenn, W. Hammond, B. Jay, H. Jay, Lacon, Marsh, S. Miller, Nightingale, W. H. Palmer, Plummer, Preston, Smith, Steward, F. Worship, and W. Worship; total, 23.  And the Mayor, giving a casting vote for himself, declared himself duly elected.  Subsequently the Town Clerk (Mr. John Clowes) declared that he would not continue in that office at the salary of £250, and it having been stated that Mr. Charles Cory would accept it on those terms, he was elected Town Clerk by 23 against 15 voices.  Mr. Cory then attended, was informed of his election, and an order made on the late Clerk to hand over the papers relating to the office to him.  In conclusion, the Editor expressed a hope that “on no future occasion will any parties be allowed to violate order and decorum in a way so disgraceful as they did on Monday last.”
Nov. 22nd.—A dinner had been given to the Mayor at the Star-hotel, when 45 members of the Council and others attended.
A Poor’s Rate of 1s. 2d. in the £ had been made.  Great dissatisfaction existed as to the new assessment of the parish.
Nov. 29th.—Mr. Joseph Sandars, M.P., had issued a reply to the requisition of the electors, justifying the course he had taken with regard to the Public Health Act.
A meeting had been held with regard to the new assessment, Mr. J. H. Harrison in the chair.
The town had been visited with a tremendous gale, during which several vessels had been blown out to sea.  At the time of the storm there were 700 sail between this port and Lowestoft.
The “Enterprise,” 600 tons, had been launched from Mr. Branford’s Yard; she was christened by Miss Barber and Miss Holt.
Dec. 6th.—A public meeting had been held at the Town-hall (Mr. J. H. Harrison in the chair) for the purpose of considering the Poor’s Rate assessment recently made.  About 400 persons attended, when the same was condemned, and a subscription commenced for the purpose of disputing the validity of it.
In respect of such proceedings, Mr. F. S. Costerton had been engaged as solicitor to the owners of small tenements, and Mr. C. H. Chamberlin for the general body of appellants, estimated at from 500 to 600 in number at the least.
Dec. 13th.—At the special meeting of the Town Council, “a scene of much disorder and confusion arose out of some recriminations relative the late Town-Clerk, between Mr. Burroughs and Mr. Preston.”
p. 168Dec. 20th.—On the hearing of the assessment appeals, the rate was quashed by the Justices on the ground of unequal assessment.  In these proceedings Mr. Chamberlin appeared on behalf of the Committee of Ratepayers, Mr. C. Cory for several private individuals, and Mr. Cufaude for the Overseers.
Dec. 27th—The Overseers had applied for, and obtained a fresh rate of 1s. 2d. in the £.
It had been determined in future not to use the “St. Nicholas’ Seal,” belonging to the Corporation, and for practical purposes a smaller seal was to be made; the old one had been in use since about the year 1251.
The Race Committee had issued its report, from which it appeared that the income had been, for the last year, £512 1s. 3d., as against £523 3s. 11d. expended.

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